Quran described the “Wal-Baytil-ma’muur” by the much –frequented fane; supreme prototype of sanctuaries being God’s throne, Ancient house and fighting in the prohibited months is an offence but kept out the Muslims from the Sacred Mosque, such intolerance are deservedly called worse than slaughter. Reminding to the North Arabian tribe Quraysh referred to the neighborhood tribes and dwellers of Mecca who rejected their prophets and worshiping deities Laat Uzza Manat in Mecca including place of their destructions lies near the Dead Sea on the highway from Mecca to Syria. Quran does not permitted Ka’ba at Mecca superseded from its original place.
7. He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days - and His Throne was over the Waters- that He might try you, which of you is best in conduct. But if thou wert to say to them, “Ye shall indeed be raised up after death”, the Unbelievers would be sure to say, “This is nothing but obvious sorcery!”
91. For me, I have been commanded to serve the Lord of this city, Him Who has sanctified it and to whom (belong) all things: and I am commanded to be of those who bow in Islam to Allah’s Will.
4. By the much-frequented Fane;
5. By the Canopy Raised High;
29. “Then let them complete the rites prescribed for them, perform their vows, and (again) circumambulate the Ancient House.”
92. And this is a Book which We have sent down, bringing blessings, and confirming (the revelations) which came before it: that thou mayest warn the mother of cities and all around her. Those who believe in the Hereafter believe in this (Book), and they are constant in guarding their prayers.
6. Seest thou not how thy Lord dealt with the ´Ad (people),
7. ‘Of the (city of) Iram, with lofty pillars,
8. The like of which were not produced in (all) the land?
9. And with the Thamud (people), who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley? –
10, And with Pharaoh, Lord of Stakes?
11. (All) these transgressed beyond bounds in the lands.
12. And heaped therein mischief (on mischief).
13. Therefore, did thy Lord pour on them a scourge of diverse chastisements:
73. To the Thamud people (We sent) Salih, one of their own brethren: He said: “O my people! Worship Allah. ye have no other god but Him. Now hath come unto you a clear (Sign) from your Lord! This she-camel of Allah is a Sign unto you: So leave her to graze in Allah’s earth, and let her come to no harm, or ye shall be seized with a grievous punishment.
74. “And remember how He made you inheritors after the ´Ad people and gave you habitations in the land: ye build for yourselves palaces and castles in (open) plains, and carve out homes in the mountains; so bring to remembrance the benefits (ye have received) from Allah, and refrain from evil and mischief on the earth.”
75. The leaders of the arrogant party among his people said to those who were reckoned powerless – those among them who believed: “know ye indeed that Salih is a messenger from his Lord?” They said: “We do indeed believe in the revelation which hath been sent through him.”
76. The Arrogant party said: “For our part, we reject what ye believe in.”
77. Then they ham-strung the she-camel, and insolently defied the order of their Lord, saying: “O Salih! Bring about thy threats, if thou art a messenger (of Allah.!)”
78. So, the earthquake took them unawares, and they lay prostrate in their homes in the morning!
12. Before them was denied (the Hereafter) by the People of Noah, the Companions of the Rass, the Thamud,
13.The ´Ad, Pharaoh, the brethren of Lut,
14. The Companions of the Wood, and the People of Tubba´; each one (of them) rejected the messengers, and My warning was duly fulfilled (in them).
26. Does it not teach them a lesson, how many generations We destroyed before them, in whose dwellings they (now) go to and fro? Verily in that are Signs: Do they not then listen?
158. Behold! Safa and Marwa are among the Symbols of Allah. So, if those who visit the House in the Season or at other times should compass them round, it is no sin in them. And if any one obeyeth his own impulse to good, - be sure that Allah is He Who recogniseth and knoweth.
59. And We refrain from sending the signs, only because the men of former generations treated them as false: We sent the She-camel to the Thamud to open their eyes, but they treated her wrongfully: We only send the Signs by way of terror (and warning from evil).
19. Have ye seen Lat. and ´Uzza,
20. And another, the third (goddess), Manat?
21. What! For you the male sex, and for Him, the female?
22. Behold, such would be indeed a division most unfair!
217. They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: “Fighting therein is a grave (offence); but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members.” Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein.`
218.Those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought (and strove and struggled) in the path of Allah, - they have the hope of the Mercy of Allah. And Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
26. Behold! We gave the site, to Abraham, of the (Sacred) House, (saying): “Associate not anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
27.“And proclaim the Pilgrimage among men: they will come to thee on foot and (mounted) on every kind of camel, lean on account of journeys through deep and distant mountain highways;
133. So also, was Lut among those sent (by Us).
134. Behold, We delivered him and his adherents, all
135. Except an old woman who was among those who lagged behind;
136. Then We destroyed the rest.
137. Verily, ye pass by their (sites), by day-
138.And by night: will ye not understand?
73. But the (mighty) Blast overtook them before morning,
74. And We turned (the cities) upside down, and rained down on them brimstones hard as baked clay.
75. Behold! in this are Signs for those who by tokens do understand.
76. And the (cities were) right on the highroad.
77. Behold! in this is a sign for those who believe!
96. The first House (of worship) appointed for men was that at Bakkah: Full of blessing and of guidance for all kinds of beings.
97. In it are Signs Manifest; (for example), the Station of Abraham; whoever enters it attains security; Pilgrimage thereto is a duty man owe to Allah, - those who can afford the journey; but if any deny faith, Allah stands not in need of any of His creatures.
24. And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And Allah sees well all that ye do.
The structure referred to in Scripture as the tabernacle was the center of the worship of Yahweh by the people of Israel from shortly after the exodus until it was replaced by Solomon’s temple around 960 B.C. The term “tabernacle” is sometimes used to refer to one part of a larger complex: the tent-like structure that stood within a court enclosed by linen curtains. At other times the term describes the entire complex.
15 So Mir’i-am was quarantined for seven days, and the people did not break camp until Mir’iam was brought back in. 16 Then the people departed from Haze’roth and began camping in the wilderness of Pa’ran.
11 Now in the second year, in the second month, on the 20th day of the month, the cloud lifted from over the tabernacle of the Testimony. 12 So the Israelites began to pull away from the wilderness of Si’nai in the order established for their departure, and the cloud settled in the wilderness of Pa’ran. 13 This was the first time they departed following the order of Jehovah through Moses. 0
1 How lovely your grand tabernacle is,O Jehovah of armies! 2 My whole being yearns, Yes, I am faint with longing, For the courtyards of Jehovah.My heart and my flesh shout joyfully to the living God. 3 Even the bird finds a home there And the swallow a nest for herself, Where she cares for her young Near your grand altar, O Jehovah of armies, My King and my God! 4 Happy are those dwelling in your house! They continue to praise you. h (Selah) 5 Happy are the men who find their strength in you,I Whose hearts are set on the highways. 6 When they pass through the Baʹca Valley, They make it into a place of springs; And the early rain clothes it with blessings. 7 They will walk on from strength to strength; Each one appears before God in Zion. 8 O Jehovah God of armies, hear my prayer; Listen, O God of Jacob. (Selah) 9 Look, our shield b and our God, Look upon the face of your anointed one. c 10 For a day in your courtyards is better than a thousand anywhere else! I choose to stand at the threshold of the house of my God Rather than to dwell in the tents of wickedness. 11 For Jehovah God is a sun and a shield; He gives favor and glory. Jehovah will not hold back anything good From those walking in integrity. 12 O Jehovah of armies, Happy is the man who trusts in you.
Verse 6. Who passing through the valley of Baca make it a well, etc. I consider the valley here mentioned to be the same as the valley of Bochim, mentioned in Judges 2:1 Judges 2:5, which received its name from the weeping of the Jews, when they were rebuked by an angel for their disobedience to the commands of God. this valley is called m’kkh, Habbcaim, in 2 Samuel 5:24, the h of hkk to weep being changed into a. Josephus mentions, that the circumstance there related occurred en toij alsesi toij kaloumenoij Klauymwsi. Antiquities Jud. lib 7 c 4. my’kkh, Habb’caim, is rendered in that verse by the LXX Klauymwn, weepings; and in Judges 2:1 kykkh, Habbocim, is also rendered by the LXX. Klauymwn, weepings. The valley mentioned in Psalms 84:6 is called by the LXX. Klauymwn. I am inclined therefore to think, that in this place, joining to ‘kkh the m of the following word, and supplying y before it, we ought to read nymy’kkh instead of ny`m’kkh... All the ancient versionists seem to have thought, that the valley in this verse received its name from hkk, bacah, to weep. I translate the verse, passing through the valley of Bochim, they will make it a fountain even of blessings; it shall be covered with the former rain. The Psalm has been supposed to have been written by Jehoshaphat. Probably he passed through Bochim, which seems to have been an arid valley, when he marched against the Moabites and
Ammonites; see 2 Chronicles 20. After the victory the army of Jehoshaphat assembled in a valley, where they blessed the Lord; and from this circumstance it received the name of Berachah: see 2 Chronicles 20:26. Perhaps the word tfkrk in this verse has an allusion to that circumstance; and perhaps the valley of Berachah was, before that glorious occasion, called the valley of Bochim. Richard Dixon. Verse 6. Passing through the valley of weeping make him, that is Jehovah, a foundation. That is, they trust, and from him look for help, who having plain paths in their mind must pass through many difficulties. Similar help is sought by those, who, suffering from a scanty supply of water press on through a dry valley, and yet do not despair or grow weary, but God for their fountain, from which they drink and are refreshed. Venema. Verse 6. The valley of Baca. Valley of tear shurbs. E.W. Hengstenberg.
The mulberry trees – Rather, the Bacah-tree, and found abundantly near Mecca. It is very like the balsam-tree, and probably derives its name from the exudation of the sap in drops like tears when a leaf is torn off. Some think the valley of Baca Psalm 84:6 was so called from this plant growing there.
14 So Abraham got up early in the morning and took bread and a skin bottle of water and gave it to Ha′gar. He set these on her shoulder and then sent her away along with the boy. b So she departed and wandered about in the wilderness of Be′er-she′ba. c 15 Finally the water in the skin bottle was used up, and she pushed the boy under one of the bushes. 16 Then she went on and sat down by herself, about the distance of a bowshot away, because she said: “I do not want to watch the boy die.” So, she sat down at a distance and began to cry aloud and to weep. 17 At that God heard the voice of the boy,d and God’s angel called to Ha′gar from the heavens and said to her: e “What is the matter with you, Ha′gar? Do not be afraid, for God has heard the voice of the boy there where he is. 18 Get up, lift the boy and take hold of him with your hand,for I will make him a great nation.” f 19 Then God opened her eyes and she saw a well of water, and she went and filled the skin bottle with water and gave the boy a drink. 20 And God was with the boy g as he grew up. He lived in the wilderness and became an archer. 21 He took up dwelling in the wilderness of Pa′ran,h and his mother took a wife for him from the land of Egypt.
Prophet Abraham brought Hagar and her son Ishmael while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’ba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. Ishmael’s mother followed him saying, “O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?” She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her then she asked him, “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards, and on reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’ba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers: ‘O our Lord! I have made some of my offspring dwell in a valley without cultivation, by Your Sacred House (Ka’ba at Mecca) in order, O our Lord, that they may offer prayer perfectly. So, fill some hearts among men with love towards them, and (O Allah) provide them with fruits, so that they may give thanks.’ (14.37) Ishmael’s mother went on suckling Ishmael and drinking from the water (she had).
Narrated Ibn Abbas :
The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Ishmael. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah. Abraham brought her and her son Ishmael while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’ba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water, and set out homeward. Ishmael’s mother followed him saying, “O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?” She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her Then she asked him, “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards, and on reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’ba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers:
On reaching the sanctuary of Mecca, Ibn ‘Umar used to stop, reciting Talbiya and then he would pass the night at Dhi-Tuwa and then offer the Fajr prayer and take a bath. He used to say that the Prophet used to do the same.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle used to enter Mecca from the high Thaniya and used to leave Mecca from the low Thaniya.
Narrated Ibn ‘Umar:
Allah’s Apostle entered Mecca from Kada’ from the highest Thaniya which is at Al-Batha’ and used to leave Mecca from the low Thaniya.1 ,
When the Prophet came to Mecca he entered from its higher side and left from its lower side.
In the year of the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet entered Mecca from Kada’ and left Mecca from Kuda, from the higher part of Mecca.
In the year of the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet entered Mecca from Kada’ at the higher place of Mecca. (Hisham, a sub-narrator said, “‘Urwa used to enter (Mecca) from both Kada’ and Kuda and he often entered through Kada’ which was nearer to his dwelling place.)
Narrated Hisham ‘Urwa said,
“The Prophet entered Mecca in the year of the conquest of Mecca from the side of Kada’ which is at the higher part of Mecca.” ‘Urwa often entered from Kada’ which was nearer of the two to his dwelling place .
Narrated Hisham from his father:
In the year of the conquest of Mecca, the Prophet entered Mecca from the side of Kada. Urwa used to enter through both places and he often entered through Kada’ which was nearer of the two to his dwelling place.
Narrated Ibn Abbas :The first lady to use a girdle was the mother of Ishmael. She used a girdle so that she might hide her tracks from Sarah. Abraham brought her and her son Ishmael while she was suckling him, to a place near the Ka’ba under a tree on the spot of Zam-zam, at the highest place in the mosque. During those days there was nobody in Mecca, nor was there any water So he made them sit over there and placed near them a leather bag containing some dates, and a small water-skin containing some water, and set out homeward. Ishmael’s mother followed him saying, “O Abraham! Where are you going, leaving us in this valley where there is no person whose company we may enjoy, nor is there anything (to enjoy)?” She repeated that to him many times, but he did not look back at her Then she asked him, “Has Allah ordered you to do so?” He said, “Yes.” She said, “Then He will not neglect us,” and returned while Abraham proceeded onwards, and on reaching the Thaniya where they could not see him, he faced the Ka’ba, and raising both hands, invoked Allah saying the following prayers:
1. al-Masdjid al-Haram—2. Kal’at Adjyad—3. Masdjid Bilal—4. Kal’at Djabal Hindi—5. Kal’at Fulful—
6. Shaykh Mahmud—7. Djarwal—8. Harat al-Bab—9. al-Shubayka—10. Ottoman barracks—11. Walled
garden—12. Graveyard—13. al-Suk al-SaghIr—14. al-Hamidiyya—15. Dar al-Takiyya al-Misriyya—16. al-
Kashashiyya—17. Suk al-Layl— 18. al-Ghazza—19. al-Djawdhariyya—20. Suk al- Habb—21. al-Ma’la—22.
al-Suwayka—23. al-Karara—24. al-Falk—25. Prophet's birthplace— 26. SharIfian palace—27.
Slaughterhouse— 28. al- Safa
(Map described ancient places from Medina Ackaba or Aylah, Petra, Mecca, Muta Dead sea,
Karak on the north and on the north east corner Dumat al Jandal)
(Current map shows ancient town Petra and Dumat al-Jandal Khaybar and Wadi Qura in the original place
North of Medina but Mecca does not match with Quran Bible and Hadith in the South of Medina)
(Mecca with surrounding Mountains Hills cave Houses Arch and Minarets)
(Uppsala Mecca Painting Dated: 1710-1712 Author: Unknown Painting with topographical view of Mecca with the Great Mosque in the center surrounded by the houses of the city and hills, purchased by Uppsala, University Library in 1717 from the Swedish orientalist Michael Eneman who acquired it in Turkey. )
Since the 1880s, the city of Mecca has been photographed and filmed. Even these images, however, are of road to Arafat is realistically rendered, as it goes to the north first and then bends sharply to the east. These locations are based on four corners of Ka’ba, match with authentic hadiths and Arabian Geography read details Uppsala painting bellow: less value than the Uppsala painting. Paradoxically, though these photos are panoramic, they do not show as many details as the earlier representations did. Therefore, one can conclude that the Uppsala painting remains an absolute summit in Hajj representations and has never been surpassed, even by later techniques of coloured pictures or photographs.
The Uppsala painting is orientated from the perspective of Mount Sha`b Ali, northwest of the Ka’ba. This mountain provides an excellent view of the Ka’ba and Mecca, and it looks to the sa’i area, where the rite of running between the hillocks of Safa and Marwa takes place, and the northern facade of the Masjid al-Haram. In the drawing, south is in the upper right of the canvas, and north in the lower left. Mount Arafat is correctly drawn to the southeast of Mecca, as is Jeddah, which is painted to the west. See the link:
Moreover Sayyid Yousuf ‘s 1433 Pilgrimage Scroll in the collection of the Museum of Islamic Art Doha see the link:
Sayyid Yusuf’s 1433 Pilgrimage Scroll (Ziyārātnāma) in the Collection of the Museum of Islamic Art, Doha », (co-authors Prof. David Roxburgh and Amélie Couvrat-Desvergnes), Muqarnas 33, December 2016: 345-407.
Retelling Mecca: Shifting Narratives of Sacred Spaces in Volga-Ural Muslim Hajj Account 1699-1845 ,By Danielle Ross see the link: