This is very interesting and useful investigation since long 15 years of researched, obtained genuine evidence to combat misleading and altered history, geographical, information that Mecca in the Saudi Arabian region Hejaz. This book is composed from the original texts of (1) Holy script Quran, Arabic text in Roman alphabets from Muhammad Marmaduke Pickthall, English translation by Abdullah Yusuf Ali with interpretations from Tafsir Ibn Kathir /Imam Abu Al-Fida Ismail Ibn Kathir, and the first written biography of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) is recorded by Muhammad Ibn Ishaq. This first written record of the Prophet's life was followed by numerous biographical accounts. (2) Bible by the New World Bible Translation Committee Revised 2013, authentic hadiths, and from the books of (3) The History of al-Tabari, Translated and annotated by Michael Fishbein, University of California. (4) A Universal History of the Nations of Antiquity; comprising A Complete History of the Jews by T.G. Tomlins, Esq. London, (5) Adam and Eve in Babylonian Literature by Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D., the American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. V: XV July 1899 Number 4, (6) Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical Sketch of Palestine by Rabbi Joseph Schwarz, Translated by Isaac Leeser, (7) The Rehla of ibn Battuta, Translation and Commentary by Mahdi Husain, Oriental Institute Baroda 1976, (8) Legends of the Patriarchs and Prophets and other Old Testament Characters from various sources by the Rev. S. Baring-Gould, M.A. Author of Curious Myths of the Middle Ages” etc. (9) Cultural Heritage site under risk: A case study from Petra, Jordan by Fadi Bala’awi and Mairna H. Mustafa, Mediterranean Archaeology and Archaeometry, (10) Nabataean Tomb Complexes at Petra: New Insights in the Light of Recent Fieldwork Lucy Wadeson University of Oxford, (11) Umm Qraieh, A Stone with rock art southwest of Petra, Fawzi Abudanah, Saad Twaissi, Zeyad al-Salameen and Mohammad B. Tarawneh, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Department of Archaeology,
(12) Petra-Jordan. United Arab Emirates University, Department of History and Archaeology, (13) The Life of Muhammad, A Translation of Isiaq’s Sirat Rasul Allah with introduction and notes by A. Guillaume, (14) The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels by Alexabder Heidel oi.uchicago.edu The University of Chicago Press 1949, (15) Hayatul Qulub, Stories of the Prophets Allamah Muhammad Baqir Al- Majlisi, Translated by Sayyid Athar Husayn S.H. Rizvi, Publisher: Ansariyan Publications, (16) Arabia and the Arabs “From the Bronze Age to the coming Islam, By Robert G. Hoyland, (17) On the Origin and Evolution of the Petra Siq from Geological Perspective, is it Natural or Man Made? The University of Jordan, Geology Dept., Faculty of Science. (18) A History of Sinai by Lina Eckenstein, London, 1921. (19) Notes taken during a journey through part of Northern Arabia in 1848 by Dr. George Aug Wallin of Finland. Published by Wiley on behalf of the Royal Geographical Society, (20) The Origins of the Islamic state, being a translation from the Arabic accompanied with annotations geography and historic notes of the “Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan”of al’Imam abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad ibn-Jabir al-Baladhuri by Philip Khuri Hitti, Ph.D. (21) Sirat Ibn Hisham Biography of the Prophet Abridge by Abdus-Salam M. Harun. (22) The Role of Water in the Rise, Prominence, and Decline of Nabataean Petra Dennis Cummins Graduate Center, City University of New York, (23) Meccan Trade and Rise of Islam by Patricia Crone, Gorgias Press 2004,(24) A Brief History of Saudi Arabia Second Edition by James Wyn brandt forwarded by Fawaz A. Gerges, (25) The Rough Guide to Jordan, written and researched by Matthew Teller, (26) Ahsanu-t-taqasim Fi Ma’rifati-l-aqalim by Muhammad ibn Ahmad Muqaddasi Bibliotheca Indica Collection of Oriental Works, Visva Bharati Library Santiniketan, published by the Asiatic Society, of Bengal 1897 Geography, Medieval, Translated from Arabic and edited by Lt. Col. G.S.A Ranking, M.D, MRAS and B.F. Azoo Vol., 1 Faso 1 Calcutta 189, (27) Palestine under the Moslems, Translated from the works of the Medieval Arab Geographers by Guy Le Strange, (28) Travels in Arabia Deserta by Charles M. Doughty 1889, (29) The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon, (30) The Hajj, Pilgrimage in Islam, Edited by Eric Tagliacozzo, Shawkat M. Toorawa Cornell University, (31) Settlement in Crusader Transjordan (1100–1189): (32) A Historical and Archaeological Study by Micaela Sinibaldi, Submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Archaeology Cardiff University 2014, (33) “Bahrain since the Prophet’s time to the Abbasid period” This thesis is submitted to the University of Wales in fulfillment of degree of doctor of Philosophy 1998 by Haya al- Naimi, 1998, (34) The Muqaddima, by Abd Ar Rahman bin Muhammed ibn Khaldun Translated by Franz Rosenthal, (35) Moorish American Moslem, Archeo Sciences, (36) The Original Christian Quran, Testimony, (37) History of Orientalis. About Muhammad’ Homeland, Lib. I,c, V Translated copy from Translation Services USA LLC, (38) Is Makkah mentioned in the Bible, by Dr. Muhammad Solaiman , (39) The Unveiling of Arabia The Story of Arabian Travel and Discovery by R. H. Kiernan, (40) Ibn Battuta Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354, Translated and selected H.A.R. Gibb, (41) Arabian archaeology and epigraphy,“Agriculture in sixth-century Petra and hinterland the evidence from the Petra papyri “By Mohammed Nasarat, Fawzi Abu danh and Slameh Naimat University of Jordan, Amman, (42) ”A Critical study of the Pilgrim Road between Kufa and Mecca (Darb Zubaydah) with the Aid of Fieldwork” Being a thesis presented by Saad Abdul Aziz Al- Rashid at the University of Leeds Volume 1. (43) Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, (44) The Book of Bodies and Distances of Habash al-Hasib Arabic Text English Translation by Y. Tzvi Lagermann, Institute of Asian and African Studies, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. (45) Ancient Explorers “The Ebla Tablets Mystery”. (46) Testi Orientali Inediti Sopra I Sette Dormienti Di Efeso, By Ignazio Guidi Roma Reale Accademia Dei Lincei Anno.(47) Studia Onomastica Coranica: al-Raqīm, Caput Nabataeae by Mehdy Shaddel, Independent Scholar, Journal of Semitic Studies Published by Oxford University Press. (48) UCL Institute of Archaeology London published a map of Petra based on Kennedy’s R. A.F Survey 1923. (49) Diodorus of Sicily in Twelve Volume , with an English Translation by C. H. Oldfather, William Heinemann Ltd. (50) Topkapi Sarayi Muzesi Kutuphanesi, A. 3599, Istanbul British Library, MS. Or. 1525, fols. 8v-9r, London Library of Congress, Washington D.C. (51) The Miqat of al-Juhfa A Historical and Archaeological Study by Mohammad Alsubaie Ph.D. University of Victoria,2018. (52) “Archaeology “ A publication of the Archaeological Institute of America, Sara Toth Stub is a journalist living in Jerusalem, Letter from Jordan ” Beyond Petra, (53) Twilight in the Kingdome, Understanding the Saudis, by Mark A. Caudill Praeger Security International, (54) Encyclopedia of Islam E. J. Brill, (55) Arabia: The Cradle of Islam, Studies in the Geography, People and Politics of the Peninsula with an account of Islam and Mission-work, by Rev. S.M. Zwemer, F.R. G.S. Introduction by Rev. James S. Dennis, D.D., (56) Roman Architecture from Augustus to Hadrian, by C.J. LYES. The Colosseum: An Analysis of the inherent Political and Architectural Significance. (57) Analysis of Sandstone Weathering of the Roman theatre in Petra, Jordan, By Thomas R. Paradise, (58) The Nabataeans in History by Robert Wenning, (59) Pilgrimage to Al- Madina & Meccah by Captain Sir Richard F. Burton, (60) Art of Islam Language and Meaning Forwarded by Seyyed Haosain Nasr, (61) Exploring Jordan: Biblical Archaeology Society, the Other Biblical Land “When People Lived at Petra” By Joseph J. Basile, (62) Petra Great Temple Excavations, Brown University, Box 1837 Providence USA , (63) Archaeological survey of the southern temple at Petra Martha Sharp Joukowsky Brown University, Providence, (64) Studies in Ancient Art and Civilization, By Eyad Almasri, Firas Alawneh. (65) The life of Mahomet and History of Islam by William Muir, Esq. (66) Hidden History Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge and Ancient Mysteries by Brian Haughton, (67) Flood Analysis and Mitigation for Petra Area in Jordan by Dir. and Sr. Hydr. Engr., Resour, and Envir. (68) A Literary History of the Arabs. By Reynold A. Nicholson, M.A. London T. Fisher Unwin 1907, (69) An archaeological study of the Yemeni highland pilgrim route between Sana’a’ and Mecca, by Al-Thenayian, Mohammed Bin A. Rashed. Durham theses Durham University. (70) King’s Highway, by The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica’s editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. (71) Field Report, the Brown University Petra Archaeological Project, American Journal of Archaeology, (72) Two Queens of Bagdad, Mother and Wife of Haron Al- Rashid by Nabia Abbott University of Chicago Press, (73) To Mecca on Pilgrimage on Foot and Camel back: The Jordan Darb al-Hajj, Claudine Dauphin (Unniversity of Wales Lampeter) Mohamed Ben Jeddou (CNR S) and Jean-Marie Castex (Geographer of Fallahin and Nomadfs), (74) Roads of Arabia, Archaeology and History of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Darb Zubayda. The Pilgrimage Road from Kufa to Mecca by Sa’d bin Abdulaziz Al- Rashid, (75) “Darb Zubayda” (Pilgrim Road from Kufa to Mecca) Saudi Arabia, “Syrian Hajj Road” Saudi Araba“Egyptian Hajj Road” Submitted by Permanent Delegation of Saudi Arabia to UNESCO. (76) Palestine Pilgrims’ Text Society, Diary of a Journey through Syria and Palestine by Nasir-l-Khusrau in 1017 A.D. Translated from the Persian and annotated by Guy Le Strange, (77) Early Pilgrimage Routes to Mecca and Medina by Joachim Gierlichs 2012, Roads of Arabia. Archaeological Treasures from Saudi Arabia, edited by Ute Franke and Joachim Gierlichs, (78) Commercial Relations of the United States with Foreign Countries During the year 1900, In two volumes Volume 1, Washington: Government Printing Office 1901. Issued from Bureau of Foreign Commerce Department of State, (79) Roger’s Study Hejaz Railway an Article originally published (Vol, 21, April 15th 1915, No 272), (80) Museum with no Frontiers - Discover Islamic Art.
This book arranged logically starting with the geographical place in which something happens and exist. Original first man and first home of Adam after the fall and the home of all the older prophets of Quran and bible. The story runs that when the primal pair fell from heavenly paradise, Adam landed on a mountain Sarandip in Ceylon and Eve at Jiddah, they met near Mecca and here Allah constructed for them a tabernacle on the site of the Ka’ba. Therefore, Quran mentioned first house of worship. Allah made the Ka’ba, the Sacred House, Mother of Cities, and Ancient House etc.
(The reputed Tomb of Eve at Jiddah demolished by Saudis)
Son of Adam Seth rebuilt the Ka’ba of Stone and clay. When Seth had ascended the throne of his father he was the greatest of the sons of Adam. Every year he made pilgrimage to the Ka’ba and he ruled the world with equity and everything flourished during his reign.
The Biblical and Qur’anic Stories of Noah speak about the same person who was favored by God. The flood story is found apart from Qur’an and Bible many societies developed with their religious and cultural beliefs. The oldest flood story was Mesopotamian flood story of Epic of Gilgamesh, and the biblical flood story comes after this Mesopotamian flood story. So, there is a possibility that the oldest flood narrative was passed down to the biblical flood story and later on it influenced the Qur’anic one, according to the religious and cultural context in each case.
Sumerian Tablet “MS 3026” Flood Story `
MS in Neo Sumerian on clay, Babylonia, 19th-18th c. BC, 1/4 tablet, 6,4x5,5x2,3 cm, ca. 35 lines in cuneiform script. Context: For 5 of the 6 Sumerian forerunners of the Gilgamesh Epic, see MSS 265 gyyg2/1-2, 2887, 3026, 3027 and 3361.
Tabari described the ark carried them around the entire earth in six months. It did not come to rest anywhere until it came to the Sacred Territory (of Mecca and Medina). However, it did not enter the Sacred Territory but circled around for a week. The House built by Adam was lifted up, so as not to be submerged-”the inhabited House”.
The land of the people of Ad was near Mecca than the valley of Hidjir, is situated at the extremity of the desert on the road to Syria. Hud came to Ad and admonished them reminding them of what God had related in the Qur’an but they persisted in disbelieving him, and challenged him to punish them. When God punished ‘Ad with the wind which castigated them, it tore up huge trees by the roots, and smashed their house down upon them. Whoever was in a house was blown by the wind until it split the mountain with him, and thus all of them were destroyed.
Quran and its interpretation described sign of Ka’ba, Thamud who built fine temple, tomb and building cut of the solid rocky mountain, which enclosed Colosseum (theater). They dwelled between the area of the Hijaz (Western Arabia) and Ash- Sham (Greater Syria). The land of the people of Thamud was nearer Mecca than valley of Hidjir. Prophet Salih came to Thamud and Allah sent to them a pregnant She-Camel that emerged from solid rock according to their request, so that it would become a proof against them from Allah, the exalted. They were supposed to believe in what was brought to them by prophet Salih . People of Thamud killed She-Camel pierced her leg then severe tremor overtook them except a man Abu Righal was in Sacred Area (Ka’ba) did not touch him. When went out of the sacred area stone fell from sky and killed him. Appearance of She-Camel Thamudian Mountain, the Siq excavated in Petra with presumably cut off legs of She-Camel petroglyphs discovered on the wall of Siq in Petra.
(Petroglyphs cut off legs of She-Camel in Petra)
Prophet Abraham directed Hagar and Ishmael to go to valley of Paran which is in the Arabia Deserta and settled them down there. Lot was the nephew of Ibrahim; Lut had believed in Ibrahim and migrated with him to the Sham area. Allah then sent Lut to the people of Sadum (Sodom) and the surrounding villages, to call them to Allah, enjoin righteousness and forbid them from their evil practices, their sin, and wickedness. And then they were overthrown, so that their foundations were towards the sky and their roofs towards the earth. And God rained on them stones heated in the fire of hell; and on each stone was written the name of him whom it was destined to slay. Now there were many natives of these accursed cities in other parts of the land, and where they were, they were sought out by the red-hot stones, and were struck down. But some were within the sacred enclosure of the temple at Mecca, and the stones waited for them in the air; and at the expiration of forty days they came forth, and as they came forth, the stones whistled through the air, and smote them, and they were slain.
Quran described prophet Abraham asked for rituals of hajj, Jibril held Ibrahim’s hand, led him to As-Safa and said, this is among the rituals of Allah.’ He then took him to Al-Marwah and said, ‘And this is among the rituals of Allah.’ He then took him to Mina until when they reached the ‘Aqabah, they found Iblls standing next to a tree. Jibril said, ‘Say Takbir (Allah is the Great) and throw (pebbles) at him.
(Map of Manasik of Prophet Abraham)
"The people of Makkah asked the Prophet (pbuh) to turn As- Safa' into gold for them, and to remove the mountains (from around Makkah) so that they could cultivate the land. Allah says I will do if they then disbelieve, they will be destroyed.
One day the Messenger of God mounted al-Safa and called out, "Beware this morning!" Quraysh gathered said what is the matter? Then he said I am a Warner to you in the face of a terrible doom." Then Abu Lahab said, "May you perish! Did you call us together for this?" Then God revealed: "The power of Abu Lahab will perish and he will perish"...
During conquest of Mecca, the Messenger of God (SAAS) went forward and when he reached the Black Stone he saluted it and circumambulated the ka’ba. Arriving at an idol at the side of the ka’ba to which Quraysh had made worship, the Messenger of God (SAAS) grasped a bow he was carrying by its bent frame and began poking it in the eye, saying ‘The truth has come and error has gone. The truth has come and error is bound to disappear.’ When he had finished his circumambulation, he went out and climbed to the top of the Mount Safa and, looking down at the ka’ba, raised up his hands, gave praise to God and spoke various prayers. It is evident that height of the mount /hillock Safa is more than the Ka’ba itself.
This book comprises World map in a 1481 Turkish manuscript of al-Wardi’s “Enumeration of Wonders” Oriented with the South at the top, it shows the known world as a sphere surrounded by the Encircling Sea, which is enclosed by mountains. Mecca, shown unusually in graphic form, the focal point of all spatial references, is near the center of the Arabian Peninsula, which is embraced by the Persian Gulf and the Red Sea in the shape of a crescent moon to signify the unity of the celestial and terrestrial worlds, a unity of conjoined sacredness.
(World Map of Al-Wardi accompanied with a colored picture of Ka’ba)
During life time of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) prescribed Miqats boundaries of the Sacred Mosque area oriented four corners of the Ka’ba giving specific distances measuring in mile or kilometer, such as 1) Dhul-Hulaifa 450 km 2) Al-Juhfa 187 km 3) Qaran –al- Manazil 85 km and 4) Yalamlam 92 km which are irrevocable except Khaliph Ibn Umar here adds people of Iraq at Dhat ‘Irq as being parallel to Qarn on the straight road between al- Iraq. A simple scheme of sacred geography in the published text of the Kitab al- Masalik of Ibn Khurradahbih.
Surprisingly during unknown period of Mecca superseded from North of Medina to south “Cat come out from the bag” all the Miqats prescribed by the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) shifted without its measuring length from its original places to manipulated places described in the following map:
(Distance sketch of Meeqats in Saudi Arabian Mecca prepared by Hajj Assistance Committee
North America, under Your Personal Guide to Umrah, Hajj, and Ziyarat by Alhaj Mahmud & Zehra Habib page # 16.)